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Week 5: Defining Research in/through Art / Group crits - Statement of Intent proposals (ART723)

Updated: Mar 6, 2023

Week beginning: 28th February 2023

Defining Research in/through Art/ Group Crits and Statement of Intent Proposals


Current Rate of Research:

Global Forest Watch- United Kingdom


In 2010,

  • United Kingdom had 3.55Mha of natural forest, extending over 20% of its land area. In 2021, it lost 5.25kha of natural forest.

  • England had 1.82Mha of natural forest, extending over 16% of its land area. In 2021, it lost 2.23kha of natural forest.

  • Wales had 366kha of natural forest, extending over 24% of its land area. In 2021, it lost 701ha of natural forest.

  • Northern Ireland had 315kha of natural forest, extending over 26% of its land area. In 2021, it lost 214ha of natural forest.

  • Scotland had 1.05Mha of natural forest, extending over 26% of its land area. In 2021, it lost 2.11kha of natural forest.





Deforestation and Forest Loss


Which countries are gaining, and which are losing forest?

It’s useful to understand the net change in forest cover. The net change in forest cover measures any gains in forest cover – either through natural forest expansion or afforestation through tree-planting – minus deforestation.

This map shows the net change in forest cover across the world. Countries with a positive change (shown in green) are regrowing forest faster than they’re losing it. Countries with a negative change (shown in red) are losing more than they’re able to restore.

Net forest loss is not the same as deforestation – it measures deforestation plus any gains in forest over a given period.

Over the decade since 2010, the net loss in forests globally was 4.7 million hectares per year. However, deforestation rates were much significantly higher.

The UN FAO estimate that 10 million hectares of forest were cut down each year.

This map shows deforestation rates across the world.


The Nature, Causes, Effects and Mitigation of Climate Change on the Environment.

Edited by Stuart A. Harris


"This book examines global warming and climate change over the past five decades in mainly subtropical and tropical countries. The amount and types of changes in these countries vary with the environment but are often less than those occurring in the Arctic and northern countries. Chapters address such topics as the controversy surrounding global warming, the effects of climate change on agriculture, changes in land use and hydrology, and more."


Chapter 11: Delineation and Dimension of Deforestation

Abstract

Deforestation is induced by human activities, cascading into associated cost and economic benefits. The concepts, dimensions and, deforestation caused by deliberate human activities were extensively examined. The chapter also highlighted the rationale for deforestation, environmental dimension to deforestation and contributions of forestry and forest by products to livelihoods. The segmented cases and experiences to create awareness on the need to discourage deforestation were explored. While recognizing that forest provides useful support for majority of rural dwellers, the justification for forest protection is advocated. Some communities depend on forests for their main livelihood, and use medicinal therapies derived from indigenous plants found in the forest. Forest remains an important pool of biodiversity and deforestation must be avoided. The chapter conclude that awareness of the impact of deforestation by the citizenry should be encouraged and supported by policies.


Introduction

Trees play a very pivotal role in the lives of both human beings and animals. Particularly, to human beings, trees plays a huge role. Trees takes up carbon dioxide and make use of it to produce the oxygen needed by human beings. Not only that, trees are a source of food, medicine, shade and supports biodiversity. Moreover, trees provide the wood we need to make papers, furniture and shelter. Trees also helps control temperatures, reduces soil erosion as well as soil salinity. Significantly, trees remain the source of and provides food. Shade, medicine, and enhancement of biodiversity is realized from trees. Therefore, it is beyond any shadow of doubt that trees are important for human life to be sustained. However, there is an ever-growing challenge across the world. The challenge attributed to, is the clearing of our forests for some reasons. Human settlement, construction of roads, and medicinal extraction as well as agricultural purposes are some reasons, among others, that lead to clearing of our forests.


A forest is an enormous area that is covered with trees and vegetation, which is also known as undergrowth. It is also regarded as a very multifaceted ecosystem dominated with trees that safeguards the earth and also support a myriad of life forms. Trees are very much important as far as environmental components is concerned. This is mainly because of the very benefits of trees on the myriad of life forms it supports. In as much as a forest is of great importance to life, there are two processes which determines its existence. That is the processes of afforestation and deforestation. Afforestation is defined in simple terms as a process of planting trees in a particular land. This promotes vegetation and canopy for soil protection and leads to the balance of the ecosystem. Afforestation is a method sought, so incredible, by humankind, in the quest to fighting the effects of climate change, dealing with issues of soil degradation and maintenance of soil organic carbon levels. This is on technique of humankind to prevent desertification.


On the other hand, deforestation as defined by, is the clearing of trees in forests. Significantly, deforestation can be traced to manmade and natural processes. The natural process of deforestation includes: plant diseases, damage of trees by other plants, damage of trees by animals feeding or habiting on the trees, storms and wind, as well as other climatic conditions such as flood and veld fires. While manmade processes involves: construction developments, agricultural engagements, and clearing of trees for medicinal purposes and usages. It is furthermore, of paramount importance to note that deforestation is the major and lead factor to climate change. Climate change refers to the alterations of climatic patterns regionally as well as worldwide. Deforestation comes with a number of consequences. During the clearing the forests, good and developmental cost can be tabled. However, the cost and consequences of deforestation are punitive to both human kind and animals (both aquatic and wildlife).


The rationale for deforestation are highlighted and it includes: soil degradation, increased chances and levels of soil erosion, increase in the reflected radiation of solar, increase in the migration of animal species in search for habitat and greener pastures, and increased economic instability. Moreover, it is evident from research that the increase in the rate at which population grows as well as the changes in the ways and technologies of cultivation are the primary reasons of deforestation. This research facts points to us the danger that continues to loom around the myriad of life forms. Therefore, the task of preaching the importance and practice of sustainable development remain pivotal. Hence, this chapter, draws on the meaning of deforestation, shades light on the rationale and consequences of deforestation.


Table 1: The Categories Of Deforestation


Figure 1: Schematic illustration of deforestation.


Figure 2: Impact of deforestation

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